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湖北民歌《黄四姐》的传承过程Hubei folk song Sister Huang, the process of inheritance

发布时间:[2013/5/29]  所属栏目:[陈言陈语]  点击:[2237]

                          

      土家族歌手陈涓自2005年在央视“星光大道”演绎了《黄四姐》后,多次在全国各种晚会和娱乐节目的现场演唱这首歌,使全国观众进一步熟悉了这首经典湖北民歌。
      传唱于大江南北的湖北建始民歌《黄四姐》,属于民俗活动中的娱神歌,早期版本叫《货郎歌》或《黄师姐》,源于建始县三里乡老村黄家老屋场,  后人以“联姻”和“借用”的手法将建始“喜花鼓”与利川“灯调”音乐相融合,逐渐演变成了一首经典的民间爱情歌曲。优美的山歌题材,边唱边跳边创作的表演形式,土家特色的虚词活用,都展现了《黄四姐》无与比拟的独特艺术价值,传唱了150多年而经久不衰,堪称民间爱情歌曲中的绝品。
    目前流传开的《黄四姐》版本以喜花鼓的明快节奏和俏皮的对唱形式,表现了土家青年男女以歌为媒,自由恋爱、馈赠定情信物的生动情节,是鄂西土家民歌中的艺术奇葩。《黄四姐》真正走出建始,迈向全国始于20世纪50年代,最早由三里乡老村严钦秀、张前香等民间艺人将《黄四姐》唱响恩施山城,传遍全省。建始县文艺工作者王华英、孙友维、张建东、崔珍珍、崔应涛等在不同年代对《黄四姐》进行了悉心整理和改编,使这首民歌演唱版本不断翻新,几十年来一直在民间和专业文艺团体中被歌手做为保留曲目演唱,在省内外各种晚会上频频亮相。
    此歌1959年代表我省参加中南五省文艺调演,最早收录在 1979年湖北恩施行政专员公署文化局编辑的《恩施地区民歌集》(下册)  ,由当地歌手周兴寿演唱,王华英记录。1980年被制作成录音带全国发行。1981年由建始县歌舞团代表我省晋京参加了当年国家文化部组织的“山民歌调演  ”。2004年央视“新盖中盖”杯青歌赛民族唱法银奖获得者建始籍歌手陈春茸在颁奖晚会上演唱《黄四姐》,再次引起了世人对这首恩施土家族民歌的瞩目。
    2005年,恩施州政府将《黄四姐》的发源地三里乡老村定为全州20个“民族民间文化生态保护区”之一,重点保护以《黄四姐》为代表的”喜花鼓”。前些年,中央电视台音乐频道专程来到建始录制《黄四姐》,并在《民歌中国》专栏三次全面推介了《黄四姐》。2011年春节,《黄四姐》被省文联、省音协编进“梅花湖北”板块节目中,参加中国文联“百花迎春”晚会。

       Tujia singer Chen Juan since 2005 CCTV "Avenue of Stars" interpretation of the "Sister Huang", the many national and entertainment variety show live singing this song, so that the national audience more familiar with this classic Hubei folk songs.
       Sung in the north and south of Hubei Jianshi folk song "Sister Huang", belonging to folk activities in the entertainment Divine Song, the early version called "Shining Song" or "yellow senior sister apprentice", from Jianshi County Township old village yellow house old house farm, later with "marriage "and" borrow "approach will be built beginning" hi hub "with Icheon" light tone "music fusion, and gradually evolved into a classic folk love songs. Beautiful folk themes, singing and dancing and creative performances, Tujia characteristics of function words inflect, have demonstrated a "yellow Sister" no unique and incomparable artistic value, sung for over 150 years and enduring, called folk love songs gem.

       Currently spread "yellow Sister" versions hi hub of lively rhythm and playful duet form, the performance of Tujia young men and women in song for the media, free love, gift keepsake tokens vivid plot, is in western Hubei Tujia folk art in the . "Sister Huang" truly out of Jianshi, into the country began in the 1950s, first by the three Township old village Yan Xiu Qin, Zhang Qian, incense and other folk artists will "yellow Sister" sing Enshi mountain, spread throughout the province. Jianshi artists Huaying Wang, Sun Youwei, Marvin, Cui Chen-chen, Cui Ying Tao, etc. at different times of the "yellow Sister" for the careful sorting and adapted so that the folk song concert versions constantly renovated for decades has been in private and professional troupes are concert repertoire as a singer, in the province frequently appeared on various evenings.
       This song in 1959 on behalf of the province to participate in five provinces in South theatrical festival, the first included in the 1979 Department of Cultural Affairs Commissioner Enshi Chief Editor of the "Enshi Folk Collection" (two volumes), by local singer Zhou Xingshou singing, Huaying Wang records. 1980 was made ​​into a national distribution tapes. 1981 by the representatives Jianshi ensembles Jin Jing province participated that year the Ministry of Culture organized the "mountain folk diaoyan." 2004 CCTV "new cap in the cap" Cup Youth Song Competition Silver Medal winner Jianshi folk singing singer Chen Chun Rong Ji at the awards show singing "Sister Huang," this world has once again aroused the attention of the first Enshi Tujia folk songs.
       2005, Enshi government would "Sister Huang," the birthplace of the old village of Three Mile Township statewide 20 as "folk culture ecological protection zone," one key protected by "Sister Huang" representative "hi hub." A few years ago, CCTV music channel had come to build start recording "Sister Huang," and in the "Chinese folk" column three times a comprehensive referral of the "Sister Huang." 2011 Spring Festival, "yellow Sister" is Literary Federation, the Provincial Music Association compiled into the "Plum Hubei" plate program, participants China Federation "Spring Flowers" party.

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